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On This Day in:

1065 – Westminster Abbey was consecrated under Edward the Confessor.

1694 – Queen Mary II of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III.

1703 – The Methuen Treaty was signed between Portugal and England, giving preference to the import of Portuguese wines into England.

1732 – 'The Pennsylvania Gazette,' owned by Benjamin Franklin, ran an ad for the first issue of 'Poor Richard’s Almanack.'

1831 – Charles Darwin set out on a voyage to the Pacific aboard the HMS Beagle. Darwin's discoveries during the voyage helped him form the basis of his theories on evolution.

1845 – Dr. Crawford Williamson Long used anesthesia for childbirth for the first time. The event was the delivery of his own child in Jefferson, GA.

1832 – John C. Calhoun became the first vice president of the United States to resign, stepping down over differences with President Jackson.

1836 – Mexico's independence was recognized by Spain.

1846 – Iowa became the 29th state to be admitted to the Union.

1869 – William E. Semple, of Mt. Vernon, OH, patented an acceptable chewing gum.

1877 – John Stevens applied for a patent for his flour-rolling mill, which boosted production by 70%.

1879 – In Dundee, Scotland the central portion of the Tay Bridge collapsed as a train was passing over it. 75 people were killed.

1895 – In Paris, the first commercial public screening of cinematographic films took place.

1897 – 'Cyrano de Bergerac,' the play by Edmond Rostand, premiered in Paris, France.

1902 – The first professional indoor football game was played at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Syracuse defeated the Philadelphia Nationals 6-0.

1908 – An earthquake killed over 75,000 at Messina in Sicily.

1912 – The first municipally-owned street cars were used on the streets of San Francisco, CA.

1917 – The New York Evening Mail published a facetious essay by H.L. Mencken on the history of bathtubs in America.

1926 – The highest recorded cricket innings score of 1,107 runs was hit by Victoria, against New South Wales, in Melbourne.

1937 – The Irish Free State became the Republic of Ireland when a new constitution established the country as a sovereign state under the name of Eire.

1942 – R.O. Sullivan crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the 100th time.

1945 – The U.S. Congress officially recognized the 'Pledge of Allegiance.'

1964 – Initial filming of the movie 'Dr. Zhivago' began on location near Madrid, Spain. The movies total running time is 197 minutes.

1973 – The Chamber of Commerce of Akron, OH, terminated its association with the All-American Soap Box Derby. It was stated that the race had become 'a victim of cheating and fraud.'

1973 – Alexander Solzhenitsyn published 'Gulag Archipelago,' an expose of the Soviet prison system.

1981 – Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American test-tube baby, was born in Norfolk, VA.

1982 – Nevell Johnson Jr. was mortally wounded by a police officer in a Miami video arcade. The event set off three days of race related disturbances that left another man dead.

1987 – The bodies of 14 relatives of R. Gene Simmons were found at his home near Dover, AR. Simmons had gone on a shooting spree in Russellville that claimed two other lives.

1989 – Alexander Dubcek, who had been expelled from the Communist Party in 1970, was elected speaker of the Czech parliament.

1991 – Nine people died in a rush to get into a basketball game at City College in New York.

Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”

— Genesis 1:26 (ESV)

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