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On This Day in:

404 – The last gladiator competition was held in Rome.

1622 – The Papal Chancery adopted January 1st as the beginning of the New Year (instead of March 25th).

1772 – The first traveler's checks were issued in London.

1785 – London's oldest daily paper 'The Daily Universal Register' (later renamed 'The Times' in 1788) was first published.

1797 – Albany became the capital of New York state, replacing New York City.

1801 – The Act of Union of England and Ireland came into force.

1801 – Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi became the first person to discover an asteroid. He named it Ceres.

1804 – Haiti gained its independence.

1808 – The U.S. prohibited import of slaves from Africa.

1840 – The first recorded bowling match was recorded in the U.S.

1863 – U.S. President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that all slaves in the rebel states were free.

1887 – Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in Delhi.

1892 – Ellis Island Immigrant Station formally opened in New York.

1892 – Brooklyn and New York merged to form the single city of New York.

1894 – The Manchester Ship Canal was officially opened to traffic.

1895 – In Battle Creek, MI, C.W. Post created his first usable batch of Monks Brew (later called Postum). It was a cereal-based substitute for caffeinated drinks.

1898 – Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island were consolidated into New York City.

1900 – Hawaii asked for a delegate to the Republican national convention.

1900 – Nigeria became a British protectorate with Frederick Lagard as the high commissioner.

1901 – The Commonwealth of Australia was founded. Lord Hopetoun officially assumed the duties as the first Governor-General.

1902 – The first Tournament of Roses (later the Rose Bowl) collegiate football game was played in Pasadena, CA.

1909 – The first payments of old-age pensions were made in Britain. People over 70 received five shillings a week.

1913 – The post office began parcel post deliveries.

1924 – Frank B. Cooney received a patent for ink paste.

1926 – The Rose Bowl was carried coast to coast on network radio for the first time.

1930 – 'The Cuckoo Hour' was heard for the first time on the NBC-Blue Network, which later became ABC Radio.

1934 – Alcatraz Island officially became a Federal Prison.

1934 – The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) began operation.

1937 – The First Cotton Bowl football game was played in Dallas, TX. Texas Christian University (T.C.U.) beat Marquette, 16-6.

1939 – The Hewlett-Packard partnership was formed by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard.

1942 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill issued a declaration called the 'United Nations.' It was signed by 26 countries that vowed to create an international postwar World War II peacekeeping organization.

1945 – France was admitted to the United Nations.

1956 – Sudan gained its independence.

1958 – The European Economic Community (EEC) started operations.

1959 – Fidel Castro overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista, and seized power in Cuba.

1968 – Evel Knievel, stunt performing daredevil, lost control of his motorcycle midway through a jump of 141 feet over the ornamental fountains in front of Caesar’s Palace in Las Vegas.

1971 – Tobacco ads representing $20 million dollars in advertising were banned from TV and radio broadcast.

1979 – The United States and China held celebrations in Washington, DC, and Beijing to mark the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.

“Be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you.”

— Ephesians 4:32 (ESV)

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